What is Prepositions?
The words that are used before nouns or pronouns to show their co-relation with other words of the sentences are called ‘Prepositions’.
Definition of Prepositions :
A preposition is an important part of English language. It is used to show a relationship between the noun and pronoun in a sentence.
- A preposition must always be followed by a noun or pronoun in a sentence. It can never be followed by a verb.
- Prepositions + Noun/Pronouns (Prep. obj.)
• Ram is in the room.
• I saw a snake on the road.
Types of Prepositions / Kinds of Preposition
There are four types of Preposition:
(i) Simple Prepositions :
- These are Prepositions of one word and commonly used.
(ii) Compound Prepositions :
- These Prepositions; Formed with a or b and a preposition.
(iii) Phrasal Prepositions :
- Prepositions formed by joining two or more words are called Phrasal Prepositions.
|along with||in addition to||in place of|
|because of||in case of||in spite of|
|by means of||in course of||owing to|
|for the sake of||with reference to||in comparison to|
|in favour of with||with regard to||instead of|
|in accordance with||in respect to||according to|
(iv) Participle Prepositions:
- When Present Participle is used in a sentence without Noun/Pronoun, then Present Participle functions like a Preposition.
- Pending enquiry into the matter, he was transferred from the office.
- Considering the quality, the prices are reasonable.
Kinds of prepositions on the basis of their function:
(i) Preposition of position (place) :- at, in, on, along, under, above, below etc.
(ii) Preposition showing time :- by, for, since, till, until, before, after etc.
(iii) Preposition showing motion :- into, around, up, upon, down, onto, through etc.
- Manish sat on the chair.
- There is some milk in the fridge.
- Vinita was hiding under the table.
- Tarun drove over the bridge.
- Ruchi lost her ring at the beach.
- We are running in the gym today.
- The sun is above the clouds.
- Kajol lives near her workplace.
- Meena drew the picture with a crayon.
- Mahesh swam at the lake.
- The car went through the tunnel.
- I got a package from a friend.
- I have liked that song since 1999.
- Saroj puts the flowers by the window.
- The food was placed on the table.
(i) in respect of
• He is careless about his duties.
• What are you angry about?
(ii) Sense of place
• She is walking about the town.
• Books are lying about the room.
(iii) about + infinitive
• They are about to start.
• She is about to die.
(i) over (sense of place)
• The plane is flying above the clouds.
• She has no roof above her head.
• She is above suspicion.
• He married above his position.
(i) across (sense of place)
• He lives just across the road.
( ii) from this end to the other end
• There is a bridge across the river.
(i) after (sense of time)
• We went out after lunch.
(ii) just after (sense of time)
• She will go home the day after tomorrow.
(iii) according to / in the style of
• This is a poem after Wordsworth.
(iv) In the sense of repetition
• We suffer day after day / week after week.
- Generally ‘Between’ is used for the middle of two. Among is used to refer to the middle of more than two.
• He distributed his property between his two sons.
• He distributed his property among the poor.
Note: Between can be used for more than two when they are closely associated.
• A treaty was signed between three parties.
• He inserted a needle between the close petals of a flower.
(i) on/in ( sense of time )
• She will reach at 10 o’clock.
• They came at noon/night/midnight.
(ii) on/in (sense of small space)
• She is at home.
• He is at school.
• He lives at Patna.
Note: In comes before the name of a country, not at.
• We live in India.
(iii) sense of direction
• She is looking at him.
• He aimed his gun at the thief.
(iv) sense of age
• He left school at ten.
(v) sense of being temporarily engaged
• They are at work. (They are working now.)
• Boys are at play. (Boys are playing now.)
Note: In is used with permanent work/business.
• He is in the army.
• She is in politics.
• Rice sells at rupees five a kilogram.
• I got this book at rupees twenty-five.
(vii) rate of speed
• The car is running at forty kilometers an hour.
(viii) because of (sense of reason)
• We are delighted at your success.
Other usages of ‘At’ :
• at midnight, at sunset, at sunrise
• at bedtime, at the weekend, at present
• at Christmas/Easter, at the same time
• at work, at home, at a distance
• at a high speed, at war, at the top of the page, at the door, at the entrance.
• at stake at naught at naught
• at once best , at a stone ‘s throw
• at school , at office _
• I started early at down.
• I go to school at seven.
• Rice is sold at rupees fifty per kilo.
Note:- rate/price per unit with at
by with unit of measurement
• Milk is sold by the litter.
• Milk is sold at fifty rupees per kilo here.
(i) before (sense of time)
• He will get back before 9 a.m./lunch.
(ii) before (sense of place)
• A comes before B.
(iii) in front of (sense of place)
• He stood before the judge.
(i) behind (sense of place)
• He is walking behind his mother.
(ii) behind (sense of comparison)
• He is behind others in his class.
(i) adjacent to
• He sat by me.
• Here is a temple by this river.
(ii) until (before time)
• He will get back by 9 a.m.
• He should be here by the evening.
(iii) means of travel/transport
• We travel by car / bus / train / boat / ship / taxi / cycle.
• We travel by land/sea/air.
• We send something by post/hand.
· Note :- on a ship, on a boat, on a motorbike, on a horse.
(iv) To indicate ‘agency/doer’
• Our streets are lighted by electricity.
• This machine was invented by Mr. Charles.
(v) When a part of the body is used as a tool, it is preceded by by.
• I caught him by the neck.
• I seized him by the hair.
(vi) the sense of
• It is nine by my watch.
(vii) Sense of taking oath
• I swear by God.
(viii) Sense of comparison
• We won by three goals to one.
(10) By and In:
- When car / taxi / bus is preceded by a / an or a / an + adjective then it is considered to be a special type of means of transport and hence in is not preceded by that means.
• He came in a new car.
• She came in a yellow taxi.
(11) By and On:
- When cycle is preceded by a/an or a/an + adjective, then on is used before it; not of by.
• He came on his own cycle/bike.
• She came on a new cycle/bike.
(12) By and With:
- The by comes with the live instrument/worker.
• Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
• He was beaten by his teacher.
Note: With is used with an inanimate object.
• He was beaten with a chain.
• We see with our eyes.
Note: When an inanimate resource does the same work as a living worker, then by is used before it.
• We pay wages by cheque.
• He was killed by lightning.
(i) in (sense of place)
• He lives in a village/in India.
• She is lying in bed. (but sitting on the bed)
(ii) in (sense of time)
• He will come back in an hour/in a week.
• He will come in the morning / evening.
(iii) in (in dress)
• He is in white/black.
(iv) in (sense of state)
• He is in good health.
• He is in tears.
(v) in (realization of means)
• It is printed in two colours.
(i) in (outward to inward motion)
• He came into the house/garden.
• She fell into a ditch.
(ii) in (change of condition/state)
• The rain has changed into snow.
• Translate this passage into English.
(15) In and At:
- In comes before morning/evening/afternoon, but at is used before night/midnight.
• She will get back in the morning.
• She will get back at night/midnight.
(16) In and Within:
- When Future Tense is used in a sentence and period of time comes, then in is understood as ‘after’ and within as ‘before’.
• He will come in a week. (after one week)
• He will come within a week. (a week ago)
(17) In and On:
- When there is a sense of area of an object, then in comes, but when it expresses the sense of surface, then on comes.
• in the world
• in the town/village
• in the park/field
• in the room
• on the wall
• on the roof/ceiling
• on the farm
• on the field
• Horses are grazing in the field. (area)
• Players are practicing on the field. (surface)
(i) for (sense of purpose)
• I bought sweets for children/for them.
• He set out for home.
(iii) because of
• They danced for joy.
• He got a prize for bravery.
(iv) amount/number sense
• I bought this book for 10 Rs.
• The score is 250 runs for five wickets.
(v) sense of choice
• He has a liking for fish.
• He has a taste for music.
(vi) in spite of
• For all his wealth he is unhappy.
(vii) Sense of time (period of time)
• She has gone home for a week.
• He stayed here for a few hours.
(viii) Some words followed by ‘for’
• sorry for
• regret for
• beg for
• ask for
• wish for
• famous for
• known for
• respect for
• responsible for
• accountable for
• send for
- Since is used in Perfect Tense. For is used in Perfect Tense as well as in other Tense for ‘duration of time’.
Since is used to show Point of time.
eg. 6 o’clock / Last night / Last Monday Morning / Evening / Monday /January/2004 etc.
For is used to show Period of time.
eg. two hours/two days/two years/many years /a long time/some time etc.
• It has been raining for two hours.
• It has been raining since 2 o’clock.
• He worked for three hours.
• He comes of a poor family.
• He died of cholera.
• She died of hunger.
(iii) part of an object
• This is a nib of this pen.
• These are the doors of this room.
• I want a piece of paper.
• He bought a litre of petrol.
• This house is made of brick / stone / wood.
• These clothes are made of cotton / silk.
(21) Of and Form:
- Of and from both refer to material, but there is a difference between them. As if by Make of only it is understood that the object remains as it is. But make from means that the object is converted into another object.
• This house is made of brick.
• Wine is made from grapes.
• Butter is made from milk.
• A bridge is made of steel,
- Off expresses the sense of separation.
• He is off duty now.
• The dog jumped off the chair.
• To keep off envy’s stinging.
• Please keep off the fire.
• He fell off the tree.
(i) at (sense of place)
• He is sitting on a chair.
• There is a ring on his finger.
(ii) to/at (sense of time)
• He will go home on Sunday.
• The train arrived on time.
• She reached on the morning of the 1st January.
• I will start on Monday.
• I will start on the 2nd June.
(iii) Other important uses
• Congratulate on, success/birthday
• on the new year’s evening.
• on foot, on a page, on record
(iv) Some words followed by ‘on’
• depend (on/upon)
• rely (on/upon)
• bent on
• insist on
• count on
• meditate on
(i) को (to + object)
• He wrote to me.
• She replied to my letter.
• I spoke to him.
(ii) towards (sense of direction)
• He is going to college/market.
(iii) till (sense of place)
• He will go from Agra to Delhi.
(iv) till (sense of time)
• He works from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m.
(v) Sense of comparison
• This is superior/inferior to that.
• We won by six goals to three.
• It is our duty to respect our parents / teachers.
(vii) before (sense of time)
• It is a quarter to nine.
• It is ten to seven.
• He invited to tea / lunch / dinner.
(25) Over :
(i) To show something covering the whole surface.
• Please put a rug over the child.
• Huge ships sometimes sink into the ocean and the oil spreads over the surface of the ocean.
(ii) In the sense of ‘more than’
• She must be over thirty.
• Swami Vivekananda spoke well over 24 hours in parliament of religions.
(iii) Cause of laughter/quarrel.
• The boys were quarrelling over trifles.
- To pass through a surrounded area .
• The train was moving through the tunnel.
• They were passing through the forest.
(27) For/During :
- For is usually used for ‘duration’ and during is used in the sense of ‘during’.
(during childhood, during middle ages, during holidays, during summer vacations etc.
for a month, for three days, for 15 years etc.)
• He has been ill for three days.
• It rained all Sunday, but stopped during the night.
Note: For also means ‘for’, so according to the meaning, for can be used in the following way.
• I went there for summer vacations.
• I rented my car for the summer only.
(28) Below/Under :
- Both mean ‘under’. Generally physical contact with the object is expressed by Under and contact is not expressed by Below.
• He placed the lamp below the almirah.
• He put the books under the pillow.
Note: Under also means Junior.
• He is working under me.
• He is under me.
Note: Below is also used in the reference of dignity.
• It is below his dignity to beg for mercy.
(29) Beside/Besides :
- Beside means ‘beside’. Whereas besides means ‘in addition to’.
• He was sitting beside Sarla.
• He has a car besides a motor cycle.
(30) Above/Over :
- Both mean higher than. In many situations either of the two can be used.
• The helicopter is hovering above/over us.
• Flags were waved above/over our heads.
Note: Over has many meanings; For example: covering, on the other side of, across are used.
• I put a cloth over her.
• He lives over this mountain.
• There is a bridge over the railway line.
• He put a blanket over the dead body.
Note: Over can be used in the context of meal/tea/lunch/drink etc.
• We had a chat over a cup of tea.
• The matter was decided over the lunch.
(31) Along :
- ‘Along’ is used to state someone or something is moving in one direction.
• We like to walk along the beach.
• The city put up holiday decorations all along the street.
• There are no lights along the highway, so driving at night is dangerous.
• We like to drive along the sea.
(32) Across :
- ‘Across’ is used to state on the other side of someone or something.
• My sister lives across the street.
• I have to go across the bridge to get to work.
• My brother’s room is across the hall from my room.
• Do you go to school across the park?
|S. No.||Verbs||Hindi Meaning||Pre.||Meaning|
|5||Admit||let in||to/ into||secret|
|10||Arrive||reach||at||a smaller place|
|11||Arrive||reach||in||a bigger place|
|12||Aim||aiming / aiming||at||something|
|14||Attend||To pay attention||to||something|
|15||Attend||take care||upon||a person|
|18||Avenge||to take revenge||on||one’s enemies|
|19||Addict||get used to||to||something|
|20||Amaze||to be surprised||at||something|
|21||Abide||stick to||by||a promise|
|22||Abide||to stay||with||a person|
|23||Abide||to stay||in/at||a place|
|27||Answer||give answer||to||a person|
|29||Argue||to argue||with||a person|
|30||Argue||to argue||for/ against||a point|
|32||Adhere||stick to||to||a rule|
|33||Avail (oneself)||to make use of||of||an opportunity|
|35||Accompany||get along||on||a walk|
|36||Act||to influence||on/ upon||body/food|
|37||Beg||to solicit||of||a person|
|40||Blame||to denounce||on||a person|
|43||Conflict||out of sync||with||a person|
|47||Deal||to behave||with||a person|
|48||Deal||deal with||with||a subject|
|49||Deprive||To deprive||of||one’s freedom|
|51||Differ||to be different||from||a thing|
|52||Disagree||to disagree||with||a person|
|53||Disagree||to disagree||on||some matter|
|56||Entrust (somebody)||hand over||with||something|
|57||Entrust (something)||hand over||to||somebody|
|60||Grieve||to be sad||at||an event|
|61||Grieve||to be sad||for||a person|
|62||Glance||take a look||at||a book|
|64||Get||get into trouble||into||trouble|
|65||Hinder||to obstruct||from||doing something|
|67||Listen||Hear||to||a person/a thing|
|68||Lean||stand on support||against||the wall|
|69||Lean||depend on||on||a staff|
|70||Look||take care||after||some business|
|71||Look||to look||at||a person /thing|
|72||Look||understand carefully||into||a matter|
|73||Look||skim through||through||an account|
|75||Look up||to admire||to||Somebody|
|76||Mourn||to mourn||for||the dead|
|79||Prevail||to gain victory||upon||a person|
|80||Prevail||to gain victory||over||one’s enemy|
|82||Participate||to join||with||a person|
|84||Prefer||to like more||to||something|
|89||Retaliate||To rule||over||a country|
|92||Rely||depend||on||a person/a thing|
|94||Remand||remand an offender to obtain more information||for||four days|
|95||Struggle||To struggle||for||the right|
|97||Wonder||to be surprised||at||one’s stupidity|
|98||Wonder||to be surprised||about||something|
|106||Associated||related to||with||a person|
|122||Blind||Unaware||to||a person’s fault|
|123||Block||get in the way||up||the path|
|128||Dependent||dependent person||on||one’s parents (a person /thing)|
|129||Disappointed||disappointed / sad||of||a thing not obtained|
|130||Disappointed||disappointed / sad||in||a thing obtained|
|133||Eager||Eager / Impatient / Eager||for||distinction|
|139||Good||Good||at||a subject/specific work|
|146||They are irrelevant||Irrelevant||to||a topic|
|149||Owing||Because of||to||one’s careless driving|
|156||Relevant||Relevant||to||the statement point|
|158||Revenge||to take revenge||on/ upon||a person|
|162||Satisfactory||satisfactory / adequate||to||a person|
|163||Sick||to be sad||of||being blamed|
|165||Subordinate||put in supporting position||to||a person|
|166||Synonymous||Synonyms/ Alternatives||with||another word|
|169||Weak||weak||in||a subject/specific work|
|171||Worthy||able / deserve||of||praise|
|174||Bargain (N).||buy and sell agreement||with||a person|
|175||Bargain (V.)||To hope||for||Something|
|197||Insight||insight, knowledge||into||a man’s character|
|200||Partnership||Partnerships||in||a thing/a business|
|202||Proficiency||efficiency/proficiency||in||a subject /specific work|